Five Things You Must Include In Your Project On Climate Change


Written By Avinash Sharan

20th March 2022

Climate Change: Causes, Effects and Efforts Taken Globally

Climate change is the talk of the day worldwide. It is a major Global challenge today. The earth’s temperature is increasing day by day. This increase in temperature is bringing change in the climate. Rising temperature and change in climate will lead to the melting of glaciers. Melting glaciers will further cause rise in the sea level. All this will ultimately have adverse effect on earth’s atmosphere. Therefore, it is very important to take necessary steps otherwise it is going to be lot more dangerous due to the rapid out of control climate change. With the help of this blog post, you will get to know the causes and effects of climate change, and possible solutions. If you are looking for a project on this topic, this article will be helpful to you. So, lets begin.

Table of contents:


What is climate change?

Factors that cause climate change.

Effects of climate change.

Efforts taken at International level.



Climate change is the talk of the day worldwide.

The earth’s temperature if increasing day by day.

This increase in temperature is bringing change in the climate.

Therefore, it is very important to take necessary steps.

Many schools give this topic as Disaster Management Project

What Is Climate Change?

In simple words is the shift in temperatures and weather patterns.

Human activities like burning of fossil fuels, Deforestation, increase in the number of vehicles, pollution are some of the factors of climate change.

When fossil fuels burn, it releases carbon di oxide and methane gas.

These two greenhouse gases make a layer in the atmosphere which traps the sun’s heat.

It does not allow the sun’s heat to go back to the atmosphere.

This further increases the temperature and brings change.

Class IX Term II Climate: How to write short answers in points?

 Factors that cause climate change:

There are mainly two types of factors responsible:.

They are Natural factors and anthropogenic factors (environmental change caused or influenced by people, either directly or indirectly)

Natural Factors:

There are many natural factors that cause the earth’s climate to change.

They affect the climate over millions of years.

Some of the natural factors are listed below:

1. Continental drift:

Nature keeps on changing and so are the position of continents on the earth.

The position of continents which you see today where not the same some 200 million years ago.

Earlier, all continents were together and it was named Pangea.

Due to the movements inside the earth also known as plate Tectonics, these continents move from one place to another.

These movements also bring change in the physical features. For example,

Himalayas have come out from the Tethys sea.

It is rising up by 1 millimeter every year. 

हिमालय-भारत का सबसे कमज़ोर पर्वत

 2, Volcanic activity:

When a volcano erupts, gases and dust particles block the rays of the sun for sometime.

This can lead to the cooling of the weather at certain places on the earth.

Although, the volcano last for few days only but the gases remain for long period.

This ultimately affects the change in climate.

Volcanic activities in the oceans also lead to Tsunami.

Project On Tsunami: 13 Pages You Must Include In Your Disaster Management Project

3. Plate Tectonics:

The earth is divided into seven major and many minor plates.

Due to the difference in temperature in the internal layers of the earth, these plates move.

When these plates move, the position of continents and oceans change.

This very change in the position of continents influence the global and local climate.

Class IX Geography chapter 2 Physical features of India

 4. Earth’s orbit and it’s variations:

We know that the distribution of sunrays depends on the earth’s orbit.

The direct sunrays falls on Tropic of Cancer in the month of June in the Northern Hemisphere.

So, the amount of heat received by the Northern hemisphere will be comparatively higher than the southern hemisphere.

Therefore, slight change in the Earth’s orbit can lead to variation in distribution across the world.

This variation (tilt of the earth) can further cause Milankovitch cycles  which will affect the glacial periods.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) finding shows that the Milankovitch cycles have influenced the behavior of ice formation.

5. Ocean Currents:

Warm and cold ocean currents effects the climate of a place.

It is one of the major components of the climate system.

We know that, the movement and direction of winds cause Ocean Currents.

Therefore, the temperature difference of the ocean water current is definitely going to influence the climate of the region.

 Anthropogenic Factors:

Human activities also cause climate change.

Anthropogenic factors is mainly a human-caused increase in global surface temperature.

Following are some of the factors:

1. Deforestation:

Firstly, forests play a major role in regulating the temperature of a place.

Moreover, Cutting of trees and forest-fire have caused low rainfall.

Less transpiration from the trees have increased the temperature which brings change in the climate.

2. Releasing of Greenhouse gases:

With the increase in the number of industries and vehicles, greenhouse gas has increased in the atmosphere.

Industrial revolution is one such factor.

Due to this, emission of greenhouse gases in the air is increasing exponentially.

Further, this has led to more absorption and retaining the heat in the atmosphere.

The main greenhouse gases include Carbon di oxide, Carbon Mono Oxide, Methane etc.

Moreover, these gases mostly do not absorb the solar radiation but absorb most of the infrared emitted by the Earth’s surface.

This results in the increase in the Global temperature.

It is mainly a human-caused increase in GLOBAL WARMING

3. Change in the land use pattern:

Change in the land use pattern is increasing day by day.

People are cutting the trees and growing crops.

Due to Deforestation the evaporation and transpiration rates are changing.

This ultimately is causing desertification.

The increasing albedo from the snow covered mountains are also responsible for the cooling of the planet.

Effects of climate change?

Global warming:

Increasing temperature due to Greenhouse effect is causing Global warming.

Due to the increase in the earth’s temperature, the adverse effect can be easily seen on flora and fauna.

Change in rainfall pattern:

Global warming is also bringing change in the rainfall pattern.

There are some places which receives very heavy rainfall causing floods.

But, on the other hand a few places are receiving very little rain causing drought.

Changes over the glaciers at the poles:

The glaciers, icecaps and icebergs at the poles are squeezing drastically due to global warming.

These changes are going to be more prominent in the coming years making the situation more alarming.

Rise in sea level:

The melting of ice caps will increase the sea level.

This in turn will cause submerging of many islands.

Increase in ocean water temperature in the coming years is going to be a big threat to our environment.

This will further bring change in the climate.

Efforts taken at International level to combat climate change:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an organization which provides a mechanism to study the effects of climate change.
  • It was established in the year 1988 by The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) along with the World Meteorological Climate Change (WMO).
  • The main objective of IPCC is to provide scientific information to governments at all levels.
  • The governments of all member countries in turn can use these information in making climate policies.
  • It provides the policy makers with regular scientific assessments on climate change.
  • With the help of these data, the 195 member countries prepare and plan for future risks and mitigation measures.

United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • UNFCCC came into force on 21st March 1994.
  • 195 countries endorse and are parties to the convention.
  • The UNFCCC is a Rio di Janeiro Convention.
  • It’s aim is to stabilize the greenhouse gas concentration at global level.
  • Also aims to achieve the said level before it is too late.


Climate change is affecting every country in every continent.

2010 to 2019 was the warmest decade ever recorded.

Due to Covid 19 Pandemic, Greenhouse gas emissions has dropped down to 6 percent in the past two years.

But, it is only temporary.

Climate change is not on pause.

Today, we need to follow the path of sustainable development to  address the concerns of climate change.

Firstly, we will have  to minimize the use of fossil fuels.

Secondly, One must look for alternative sources of energy e.g. clean energy.

Do you remember what Mahatma Gandhi said, “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not enough to satisfy  every man’s greed”.

Therefore, with this view, we must remodel our outlook otherwise there will be no fresh air to breathe and no fresh water to drink.

Our actions can only protect out planet.

We hope that you will love this article.

Moreover, It has helped you in providing useful information.

Moreover, such topics are also important for competitive exams.

Do you think the world will ever be able to solve the problem of climate change through meetings in five star hotels?

Comment below.

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