Class IX Economics Chapter 2: People as a Resource Class Notes


Written By Avinash Sharan

23rd July 2023

People as a Resource Class Notes – Class IX Economics

People as a Resource chapter examines the crucial part that human capital plays in economic growth. It explores the shift away from the conventional “population problem” perspective and towards an appreciation of the potential of human resources. The chapter “People as a Resource” examines the distribution, size, and makeup of the population with a focus on how these factors affect economic activity. It emphasizes the role of health and education as crucial elements of human capital that boost output and promote economic growth. The necessity of investing in human capital through skill development and vocational training is also covered in this chapter. Government initiatives to address unemployment are discussed. In addition, People as a Resource also has the pointwise notes on the relationship between population, quality of life, and sustainable development, and placing an emphasis on the responsible use of people as a priceless resource.

Definition of ‘People as a Resource’

‘People as a resource’ refers to the concept of considering the population of a country or region as an asset and a valuable factor of production in the

economic development process.

It involves recognizing and harnessing the potential of human capital.

This includes skills, knowledge, health, and education, to enhance productivity and contribute to overall economic growth and prosperity.

Significance of human resources in economic development

Human resources are vital for economic development as they drive innovation, productivity, and entrepreneurship.

Skilled and educated workers enhance workforce efficiency, leading to economic growth.

Additionally, a capable labor force attracts investments and fosters sustainable development.

Population Size, Composition, and Distribution

Population size, composition, and distribution are critical factors influencing a nation’s social, economic, and political landscape.

Understanding these aspects helps governments plan and allocate resources effectively, address demographic challenges,

Also, create policies that cater to the needs of their citizens.

It also guides businesses in targeting markets and investors in identifying opportunities.

Factors Influencing Population Size, Composition, and Distribution:

  • High fertility rates lead to population growth, while declining rates can result in an aging population and potential labor shortages.
  • High mortality rates reduce population size, while low rates contribute to population growth and an aging population.
  • Influx or outflow of people significantly impacts population distribution and composition.
  • Education, healthcare, economic opportunities, and living conditions influence birth rates, mortality rates, and migration patterns.

Age Structure:

Age structure refers to the proportion of individuals in different age groups within a population.

It is essential for understanding the dependency ratio (proportion of non-working age to working-age individuals) and planning social services like

education, healthcare, and pensions.

Gender Structure:

Gender structure denotes the distribution of males and females within a population.

Understanding gender ratios helps identify potential gender imbalances and their societal implications,

Moreover, it influences policies related to gender equality, women’s empowerment, and workforce participation.

Geographical Distribution:

Geographical distribution refers to the spread of the population across regions or areas.

It influences urbanization, regional development, and resource allocation.

Analyzing this aspect aids in devising strategies for balanced growth, infrastructure development, and environmental conservation.

Human Resources and Economic Activities

  • Human resources, comprising the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the workforce, play a pivotal role in shaping economic activities and driving overall development.
  • The effective utilization of human resources enhances productivity, fosters innovation, and propels technological advancements, impacting sectors such as manufacturing, services, and knowledge-based industries.
  • Moreover, investments in education, training, and healthcare are crucial for nurturing a skilled and healthy workforce, empowering nations to meet the challenges of the future and create thriving economies that benefit individuals and societies alike.

The role of human resources in economic production

  • Human resources play a central role in economic production as they provide the necessary labor and expertise to drive various industries.
  • Skilled and motivated workers contribute to increased productivity, leading to higher output levels and economic growth.
  • Human resource management ensures the right people are in the right positions, optimizing efficiency and minimizing wastage of resources.
  • Moreover, a satisfied and well-compensated workforce boosts employee retention, reducing recruitment costs and ensuring a stable and reliable production process.

Education, skill development, and productivity

  • Formal education equips individuals with foundational skills.
  • such as literacy and numeracy, providing a strong basis for personal and professional growth.
  • Specialized training and skill development programs enable individuals to acquire expertise in specific fields, making them valuable assets in the workforce.
  • Education also fosters critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity, essential for driving innovation and entrepreneurship.
  • Overall, investing in education and skill development enhances the quality of the human resource pool.
  • Moreover, leading to higher productivity, economic advancement, and improved standards of living.

Unemployment and its types

Unemployment refers to the state of being jobless despite actively seeking employment opportunities.

There are several types of unemployment such as

  •  frictional unemployment (temporary joblessness during the process of job searching or transitioning between jobs),
  • structural unemployment (due to a mismatch between available jobs and the skills of the workforce),
  • cyclical unemployment (resulting from economic downturns and recessions), and
  • seasonal unemployment (linked to seasonal fluctuations in demand for certain industries).
  • Each type poses unique challenges to the labor market and requires targeted policy interventions to address effectively.

Health and Education as Human Capital

  • Health and education are fundamental components of human capital.
  • It represents the knowledge, skills, and well-being of individuals that contribute to their economic productivity and overall development.
  • Education equips people with cognitive abilities, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills, enabling them to adapt to changing economic demands and participate effectively in the workforce.
  • Health, on the other hand, is equally vital in shaping human capital.
  • A healthy population is more productive, as it reduces absenteeism and enables individuals to contribute actively to economic activities.
  • Access to quality healthcare enhances labor productivity, reduces healthcare-related costs, and promotes a more resilient workforce.

Investment in Human Capital

  • Investment in human capital recognizes that educated, skilled, and healthy individuals contribute significantly to economic growth and social progress.
  •  By investing in education, societies can create a skilled labor force, drive innovation, and enhance overall productivity.
  • Access to quality healthcare ensures a healthy population that is more productive, reduces absenteeism, and results in lower healthcare-related costs.
  • Overall, investing in human capital is a strategic approach that not only benefits individuals but also fosters economic growth, drives innovation, and creates a more prosperous and sustainable society.

Unemployment and Government Measures

Unemployment poses significant economic and social challenges, but governments can implement various measures to address this issue effectively.

  • Governments can encourage job creation by promoting investments in key sectors, offering incentives to businesses, and supporting startups and small enterprises.
  • Investing in education and skill development initiatives equips the workforce with relevant abilities, making them more employable and adaptable to changing market demand.
  • Implementing flexible labor laws and regulations can encourage hiring and reduce the burden on employers, fostering a more dynamic job market.
  • Providing temporary financial assistance to the unemployed helps alleviate financial hardships and supports job seekers during their search for employment.
  • Creating public works projects can offer short-term employment opportunities, especially during economic downturns.
  • Encouraging entrepreneurship through training, funding, and regulatory support can lead to the creation of new businesses and job opportunities.
  • Boosting exports can stimulate economic growth and job creation in export-oriented industries.
  • Focusing on development in economically disadvantaged regions can help distribute employment opportunities more evenly.

Population as a Resource vs. Population Explosion

Population as a Resource:

  • A growing population can be considered a resource when it is accompanied by education, skills, and good health. A well-educated and healthy population contributes to a skilled workforce, fosters innovation, and drives economic growth.
  •  A larger population can bring diversity to a nation’s culture, leading to a rich tapestry of traditions, languages, and customs. This cultural diversity can promote creativity and understanding among different communities.
  • A larger population can create a significant consumer market, attracting businesses and investments, and stimulating economic activities. A larger domestic market can lead to economies of scale and increased opportunities for businesses.

Population Explosion:

  • Population explosion refers to an unsustainable rapid increase in population beyond the carrying capacity of the environment. This can lead to overpopulation, putting strain on resources like food, water, and land, leading to environmental degradation and socio-economic challenges.
  • Population explosion can lead to excessive demand for resources, causing depletion of natural resources and exacerbating environmental issues like deforestation, pollution, and climate change.
  • Rapid population growth can overwhelm infrastructure and public services such as healthcare, education, and transportation, leading to inadequate provisions and reduced quality of life for citizens.

Sustainable Development and Human Resources

Sustainable development and human resources are interconnected as both play crucial roles in shaping the future of societies and the planet.

Skills for Sustainable Practices:

Human resources need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills to adopt sustainable practices, such as renewable energy technologies, waste

reduction, and environmentally friendly production methods.

Inclusive Education:

Education is vital for promoting sustainable development, and ensuring equitable access to education empowers individuals to participate in building

sustainable economies and societies.

Health and Well-being:

A healthy and productive workforce is essential for sustainable development, as healthy individuals can contribute more effectively to economic activities

and environmental conservation efforts.

Innovation and Research:

Human resources drive innovation and research, leading to the development of sustainable technologies and solutions for global challenges.

Equitable Employment Opportunities:

Ensuring fair employment opportunities for all, regardless of gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, fosters social inclusivity and contributes to

sustainable and resilient societies


In conclusion, People as a Resource Chapter is an important chapter of Economics for class IX students. Viewing people as a resource is essential for understanding their transformative potential in shaping societies and economies. As noted in this blog article, human capital is not merely a passive workforce but a dynamic force that can drive innovation, sustainable development, and societal progress. By investing in education, skill development, and healthcare, we can harness the full potential of our human resources, unlocking opportunities for economic growth and prosperity. Moreover, this blog article on People as a Resource covers all the topics and sub-topics pointwise to help students.

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