Forests and Wildlife Resources – Class X Notes With 1,3 & 5 Mark Questions

Chapter 2 Forests and Wildlife Resources

Written By Avinash Sharan

16th July 2022

Forests and Wildlife Resources – Geography Notes With NCERT Solutions

Forests and wildlife resources are included this year in the syllabus. Here, in this blog post, you will find class notes on Forests and wildlife resources for the maintenance of your notebooks. Apart from this, you will also find the expected 1,3, and 5-mark questions with solutions as per the board. The majority of the time, pupils struggle to understand the exercises’ responses. We have thus offered the NCERT Class 10 Geography Solutions in order to assist them. Solutions are developed specifically with board exam candidates in mind while also taking into account the most recent curriculum. Students that study using these methods will undoubtedly perform well on the test. Therefore, prepare well for class X, Geography chapter 2 Forests and wildlife resources

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Forests and Wildlife Resources – Summary

In this chapter, the students will know about the following topics:

  • Flora and Fauna in India
  • IUCN classification: Different types of species
  • Conservation of Forest and wildlife in India
  • Steps were taken by the Government to conserve Forests and wildlife
  • Project Tiger
  • Role Of Community In The Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife

Flora and Fauna in India

To begin with, about 8% of all species in the globe, India is one of the countries with the greatest biological variety in the entire planet (estimated to be 1.6 million)

20% of India’s animals and 10% of plants are vulnerable.

Moreover, many flora and fauna are “critical,” .

It means they are at the verge of extinction.

For example, the cheetah and the pink-headed duck.

IUCN Classification: Different Types of Species:

The species according to IUCN International_Union_for_Conservation_of_Nature classification is as follows.

1. Normal Species:

Normal species are quite good in a number.
They are typical species with survival-appropriate population numbers. 
For instance, pine, rodents, etc.

2. Endangered species: 

These species are today in countable numbers.
Therefore, if the current situation persists, they would soon become extinct.
Examples include lion-tailed macaques, crocodiles, and rhinos.

3. Vulnerable species: 

These species are very much in demand hence, they are at high risk.
Moreover, in the foreseeable future, these species face high risk of becoming endangered.
Examples include blue sheep, Asian elephants, and dolphins.

4. Rare species: 

These are uncommon species.
The current circumstances for their existence continue, 
they might soon be classified as an endangered or vulnerable species because of their limited number.
Examples include hornbills and Asian buffalo.

5. Endemic species:

Endemic species are generally found in isolated places. (away from the crowd)
Species can only be found in certain region.
Examples include the Andaman wild pig, Nicobar pigeon, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.

6. Extinct species: 

These species are no longer present in the habitats where they formerly lived.
Pink-headed duck, Asiatic cheetah, etc.

Conservation of Forest and wildlife in India

In India, the Conservation of forests and wildlife is an age-old tradition.
Here, in India, trees and flora are revered. 
Additionally, we have single animal that represents our Gods and Goddesses. 
Shiva with snake, Ganeshji with mouse, Durgaji with lion, Lakshmiiji with an owl, Yamraj with buffalo, etc. is some examples of deities that are represented by animals.
Do you know why? 
It is to preserve the natural balance and prevent harm to these creatures and trees. 
Each species contributes to the ecology in some way. 
India is home to broad range of animals in addition to flora and trees. 
India is home to more than 89000 different species of animals, including insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, and more. 
As result, we may argue that India owns 12% of the global stock.
Therefore, it is our moral obligation to plant and safeguard our forests and wildlife.

Steps were taken by the Government to conserve Forests and wildlife:

  1. Wildlife Protection Act was implemented in 1972.
  2. To protect habitat by protecting forests.
  3. Hunting and poaching (smuggling) of animals is banned.
  4. Opening of National Parks, Sanctuaries, Zoos and Bio-reserves
  5. Surveys are done to collect information about rare animals.
  6. Some of the projects have been initiated like Project Tiger, Project Elephant, etc.
  7. “Van-Mahotsav” is celebrated for a week in the first week of July.

Project Tiger

Project Tiger is an important topic in the chapter “Forests and wildlife resources”. Let us learn more about this initiative taken by the government of India.
  1. The Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand served as the base for the 1973 launch of Project Tiger.
  2. The tiger is globally threatened species.
  3. In India, there were between 20,000 and 40,000 tigers at the start of the 20th century.
  4. Their population significantly decreased to approximately 1820 in the 1970s as result of poaching, hunting, and other factors.
  5. The ambitious Project Tiger was started in 1973 with the goal of boosting the tiger population.
  6. At the beginning of this endeavor, India only had nine tiger reserves.
  7. Today, there are 47 such reserves spread across 18 states in India that are home to tigers.
  8. JimCorbett, Manas, Ranthambore, Simlipal, Bandipur, Palamau, Sundarbans, Melghta, and Kanha national parks were the first reserves to be included in Project Tiger.

Role Of Community In The Conservation Of Forests And Wildlife

There is no doubt that the government of India has taken many steps for the conservation and protection of forests and wildlife. But, the work done by the community in this direction is also commendable. Have a look at the following points:

  1. In Sariska tiger reserve, the people of Rajasthan fought against the mining activity which was creating havoc with the forest reserves.
  2. Similarly, the residents of about five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan, the people declared 1200 acres of land as Bhairodeo Dakav Sanctuary without taking the help of the government. Not only that, but they also framed a set of rules for managing the sanctuary.
  3. Some people, especially the tribal people of Jharkhand, Orissa, and other parts of India, consider mahua, Kadam, mango, neem, and peepal as sacred trees. They not only worship but also do not allow anyone to cut these trees.
  4. In Himachal Pradesh, the Chipko Movement has successfully resisted deforestation. Villagers hug trees and do not allow any outsider to cut the trees.
  5. In Orissa, the Joint Forest Management (JFM) has included the local people in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
  6. The role of the Bishnoi community in the conservation of forests and wildlife is also admirable.

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Forests and Wildlife Resources – Class X With 1,3 & 5 Mark Questions

1 Mark Questions From Forests and Wildlife Resources

Q1. Define Biome.

Ans. A very large area on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life because of similar climatic conditions is called Biome. For example grasslands, deserts, tundra, etc.

Q2. What is a Biosphere reserve?

Ans. A protected area reserved for the conservation of endangered species of flora and fauna in their natural habitat is known as a biosphere reserve.

Q3. Define ecosystem.

Ans. Plants, animals, and human beings and their interaction and interdependence are known as an ecosystem.

Q4. What are endemic species?

Ans.  Species that are found in a particular area that is generally isolated by natural or geographical barriers such as forests, mountains, deserts, seas, or oceans. Examples are Andaman Teal, Nicobar pigeon, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.

Q5. Name a medicinal plant that is found in the Himalayas used for the treatment of some cancers.

Ans. Himalayan Yew.

Q6. When was the Indian wildlife protection act implemented?

Ans. 1972

Q7. Which Indian state has the largest area under permanent forests?

Ans. Madhya Pradesh (approx 75 %)

Q8. Which Indian state was the first to pass the resolution of Joint Forest Management (JFM) .

Ans. Orissa.

3 Mark Questions From Forests and Wildlife Resources

Q1. What is Bio-diversity? Why Bio-diversity is important for human lives? (NCERT)

Ans. The existence of millions of living beings like animals, plants, and human beings side by side is known as Bio-diversity.

It is important for human lives because:

i) Humans depend on biodiversity for their survival.

ii) We cannot survive without plants and animals.

Q2. Why are few species of plants and animals endangered?

Ans. Few species of plants and animals are endangered because of the following reasons:

i) Firstly – Indiscriminate cutting of trees.

ii) Secondly – Illegal cutting of trees and hunting of animals.

iii) Thirdly – Increasing population.

Q3. Mention any three steps taken by the government for the conservation of flora and fauna?

Ans. Steps taken by the government for the conservation of flora and fauna are

  1. Implementation of Wildlife Protection Act in 1972.
  2. Hunting and poaching (smuggling) of animals is banned.
  3. Opening of National Parks, Sanctuaries, Zoos and Bio-reserves
  4. Census is done on a regular basis for rare animals.
  5. Some of the projects have been initiated like Project Tiger, Project Elephant, etc.
  6. “Van-Mahotsav” is celebrated for a week in the first week of July.

Q4. Mention any three human activities that have affected the depletion of flora and fauna?

Ans. Three human activities that have affected the depletion of flora and fauna are:

i) Agricultural expansion.

ii) Large-scale developmental projects.

iii) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.

Q5. In what way forests are useful to us. Mention three points.

Ans. Forests are useful to us in many ways such as:

i) Firstly, it enhances the quality of the environment.

ii) Secondly, It helps in rainfall, increases underground water tables, and controls soil erosion.

iii) Thirdly, Provide timber for construction, furniture, and fuel.

iv) Moreover, it also provides a natural environment for wildlife.

5 Mark Question From Forests and Wildlife Resources

Q1. Describe how communities have conserved and protected the forests and wildlife in India.

Ans. There is no doubt that the government of India has taken many steps for the conservation and protection of forests and wildlife. But, the work done by the community in this direction is also commendable. Have a look at the following points:

  1. Firstly, In the Sariska tiger reserve, the people of Rajasthan fought against the mining activity which was creating havoc with the forest reserves.
  2. Secondly,  the residents of about five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan, the people declared 1200 acres of land as Bhairodeo Dakav Sanctuary without taking the help of the government. Not only that, but they also framed a set of rules for managing the sanctuary.
  3. Thirdly, some people, especially the tribal people of Jharkhand, Orissa, and other parts of India, consider mahua, Kadam, mango, neem, and peepal as sacred trees. They not only worship but also do not allow anyone to cut these trees.
  4. Fourthly, in Himachal Pradesh, the Chipko Movement has successfully resisted deforestation. Villagers hug trees and do not allow any outsider to cut the trees.
  5. In Orissa, the Joint Forest Management (JFM) has included the local people in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
  6. Finally, the role of the Bishnoi community in the conservation of forests and wildlife is also admirable.

Conclusion: Forests and Wildlife Resources

Forests and wildlife play an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance. In the past, Illegal hunting and killing of animals in order to pocket huge amounts have destroyed a lot of forests and wildlife in India. Increasing population, expansion of agriculture, urbanization, industrialization, and colonial policies have also created too much damage to the forests and wildlife resources. Today, it is our moral responsibility to maintain the minimum percentage of forests and to protect wild animals from further damage.

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