Class X Resources & Development – How To Write Perfect Answers In Points

Resources and Development 10 Geography

Written By Avinash Sharan

26th July 2020

Geography: Chapter-1. Class X Resources & Development

Resources & Development is the first chapter in class X. Though the chapter seems to be small but many questions can be framed from this chapter. This chapter mainly deals with Resources, it’s classifications, planning and conservation methods. Moreover, the chapter also deals with two types of resources & development namely Land and Soil. Therefore, for your convivence, this article deals with objective, short answer and long answer type questions  framed from Resources & Development.

This article will also help the students with how to write perfect answers in board exams.

However, Small suggestions are also given almost after every question.

Let’s begin with Geography’s chapter 1 “Resources and Development”.


It is a well observed fact that students often get nervous in the examination hall.

If you attend class regularly, make notes and practice solving questions, exams can be a relatively pain free process.

Writing perfect answers in Board exam is an art.

You may prepare well and mug-up many answers, but if you fail to write perfect answers in board exams, then all your hard-work goes in vain.

Read a question carefully and understand the sense of the question.

Try to limit your answer (in points), instead of writing a whole paragraph.

Now a days, most of the students believe, ‘longer the answer the more it will score.’

But it’s an absolute absurd.

The examiner only look for valid explanations rather than stories.

Therefore, learn to write perfect answers and to the point.

To begin with, here we will take a look at some tips and strategies which will help you to write perfect answers in board exams.

1 MARK QUESTIONS FROM Class X Resources & Development

1. Which one of the following statements is true about the term resources?

(a) Resources are free gifts of nature.

(b) They are the functions of human activities.

(c) All those things which are found in nature.

(d) Things which cannot be used to fulfill our needs.

2. Under which of the following type of resource can wood be put?

(a) Biotic

(b) Renewable

(c) Non-Renewable

(d) Stock

3. Land left without cultivation for more than five agricultural years is called

(a) Cultural waste land

(b) Current fallow land

(c) Waste land

(d) Barren land

4. Which factor is not responsible for Global ecological crisis?

(a) Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.

(b) Accumulation of resources in few hands.

(c) Sustainable economic development.

(d) Indiscriminate exploitation of resources.

5. Mountains account for ____________ percent of the total surface area of the country.

(a) 17%

(b) 27%

(c) 30%

(d) 43%

6. Which one of the following statements is not correct as regard to international resources?

(a) Resources which are regulated by international institutions.

(b) Resources which lie beyond the territorial waters.

(c) Resources which are found along the international frontier.

(d) Resources which are not yet developed.

7. The third stage of Resource Planning involves

(a) Identification and inventory of resources.

(b) Matching the resource development plan with overall National Development plan.

(c) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology.

(d) Qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

ASSERTION AND REASON – Class X Resources & Development


8. In the following questions a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Identify and mark the correct choice.

Assertion: Running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels such as gullies.

Reason: In the Chambal basin such lands are called Leaching.


  • Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
  • A is true but B is false.
  • A is false but R is true.

Ans.  A is true but B is false.

9. Assertion: Laterite soils are not very fertile because it lacks micro organisms.

Reason: They are made suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.


  • Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
  • A is true but B is false.
  • A is false but R is true.

Ans. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

10. Assertion: Black soils are black in colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.

Reason: They develop deep cracks during hot weather.


  • Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
  • Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.
  • A is true but B is false.
  • A is false but R is true.

Ans. A is false but R is true.


CHAPTER – 1 Class X Resources & Development

Q 1. What do you understand by the term “Resource”. Classify on the basis of exhaustibility and give two examples of each.

Ans) Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, is called a resource.

However, It should be

Firstly, technologically accessible,

Secondly, economically feasible and

Finally, culturally acceptable.

On the basis of exhaustibility, resources can be classified as:


The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by Physical, Chemical or Mechanical processes are known as renewable resources.

Two examples are Water and Forests.


Resources which are used once and get exhausted are known as non-renewable resources.

Two examples are Coal and Petrol.

(always write clearly with enough space and highlight what is asked in the question as done above)

Q 2. “Resources are a function of human activities.” Justify.

Ans)  Resources are the function of human activities because:

i) Anything present in the nature  as free gifts, does not make them resources.

ii) Human beings are essential components of resources because they transform material available in our environment into resources.

iii) The utility of resource depends on the stage of cultural development of man and the tools and technology used by him.

Therefore, we can say that “Resources are a function of human activities.

(answer in points as asked)

Q 3. Explain four types of resources based on ownership with one example of each type.

Ans) On the basis of ownership, four types of resources are:


Resources, which are owned privately by individuals are called Individual resources.

Example Land and house.


Resources that are accessible to all the members of the community.

Example public parks.


All the resources within the political boundary of a Nation including the territorial water (oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles from the coast)

extending into the ocean are called National resources.

Example  Forests, Minerals, Monuments etc.


There are international institutions which own and regulate some resources, moreover,

The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone does not belong to any individual country.

Such resources are called International resources.

Example Minerals found in Antarctica.

(highlight the four types of resources and examples as asked in the question.)

Q 4. List the problems which resulted due to indiscriminate use of resources by man.

Ans) Indiscriminate use of resources has led to the following problems.

They are:

i) depletion of many resources such as coal, pure water, petrol and many other precious resources.

ii) Accumulation of resources in few hands which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e rich and poor.

iii) Moreover, It has led to the global ecological crisis, such as Global warming, Ozone layer depletion and environmental pollution.

(only mention three points. No need to explain)

Q 5. What is “Resource Planning”? Why is it necessary? 

Ans) Resource Planning is the proper and judicious way of using resources. It helps in reducing wastage. Further, it takes care of our future needs.

Resource planning is necessary because:

i) Resource availability is not the same in all parts of the country.

ii) Non-renewable resources are limited and cannot be renewed.

iii) There is acute shortage or deficiency of some resources.

(answer both parts of question separately)

Q 6. Explain the three stages of “Resource Planning”.

Ans) Three stages of resource planning are:

i) First- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.

This involves surveying, mapping and the qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

ii) Second – Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology.

iii) third – Matching the resource development plans with overall National development plans.

(mention the three stages of resource planning as mentioned in the NCERT book without changing the sequence)

Q 7.“India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.” Name any three varied regions to justify this statement.


“Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources in a country like India”. Justify this statement with any

three relevant points.

Ans) In India, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources. At the same time, there are regions that have acute shortage of some vital resources. For example:

i) The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Orissa are rich in mineral deposits.

ii) Arunachal Pradesh  has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.

iii)  Although Ladakh has very rich cultural heritage but is deficient in water, infrastructure and minerals.

Therefore, uneven distribution of resources requires balanced resource planning at different levels.

(Examiner wants to know why planning of resources is essential in India? (Mention in your answer with examples from India)

Q 8. Define “Sustainable Development”. Write four factors which determine resource development in a region.

Ans) Sustainable economic development means

a) development should take place without damaging the environment and

b) development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

Four factors involved in the development of resources are:

a) Availability of resources

b) Level of technology

c) Quality of human resources and

d) Historical experiences of the people

(Break sustainable economic development in two points and mention the factors as asked in the question.)

Q 9. Explain the concept of Resource conservation as voiced by Mahatma Gandhi.


Whom did Gandhi ji make responsible for the depletion of resources at the global level?

Ans) Gandhi ji voiced his concern about resource conservation in these Words: “There is enough for everybody’s need but not enough for

anybody’s greed.

i) He placed the greedy and selfish individuals as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level.

ii) Moreover, he was against ‘mass production’ and wanted to replace it with the ‘production by the masses

(Quote and highlight the words said by Mahatma Gandhi.)

Q 10. What do you mean by conservation of resources?  Why is it necessary to conserve our resources.

Ans) Conservation of resources means using the resource in such a way that there is minimum wastage.However, It must be used as per our need not as per our greed.

It is necessary to conserve our resources because:

i) Firstly, the resources are limited.

ii) Secondly, they are precious and many resources are non-renewable and

iii) Lastly,  Resources are essential for any developmental activity.

Q 11. Why is land as a resource important for us? Why land-use should be done in a planned manner.

Ans) Land as a resource is important for us because:

a) 95% of our basic needs of food, clothing and shelter are derived from land.

b) It supports natural vegetation, wildlife and human life.

land use should be done in a planned manner as

i) Land is a fixed asset.

ii) It has many uses such as setting up industries, agriculture and transportation.

iii) Moreover, it fulfills much of our basic requirements.

(Two parts of the question must be answered separately.)

Q 12. Name three main relief features of India and write any one importance of each.

Ans) Three main relief features of India are: i) Plains ii) Plateaus and Mountains.

i) PLAINS (43%) – Provides facilities for agriculture, Industries and transportation.

ii) PLATEAUS ( 27%) – Possesses rich reserves of minerals.

iii) MOUNTAINS (30%) – Ensures perennial flow of rivers.

Also provide herbal plants, wildlife and forest wealth and finally promotes tourism.

(mention the relief features with their percentage and state any one importance of it)

Q 13.  “The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.

”Name two states having high net sown area and two states having low net sown area.

Give two reasons for each.

Ans) Punjab and Haryana are the two states, which have more than 80% of their total area as (Net Sown Area).

They are agriculturally rich States because of

i)Firstly –  favourable climatic conditions and leveled fertile land.

ii) Secondly – Irrigation facilities are well-developed here.

States with low Net Sown Area are Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram  (i.e., less than 10%) because:

i) Here, the nature of land is hilly and forested, therefore, availability of arable land is less.

ii) Moreover, poverty and harsh climatic conditions also do not encourage large scale agricultural activities.

Q 14.  What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the Eastern Coast? Mention two main features of this type of soil.

Ans) The delta regions of the eastern coast have Alluvial soil.

Two features of Alluvial soil are:

i) Firstly – These soils are very fertile and ideal for cultivation.

ii) Secondly – They contain adequate quantities of potash, phosphoric acid and lime. Therefore, good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, and other crops.

DISTINGUISH BETWEEN FROM Class X Resources & Development




(Any one difference can be asked from the above mentioned questions  of 1 mark each)



1.These are the resources whose total quantity may or may not be known.

2.These resources are not being used at present due to lack of capital or technology.

3. These could be used in the future.

Example – solar, wind and tidal energy.


i) These are resources whose total quality and quantity is known.

ii) We have both capital and technology to use this resource.

iii) These resources are in use today.

Example – water is a developed resource because we know it’s use for different purposes – drinking, cooking, transportation, generating Hydroelectricity and making ice)



i) Reserve is a resource of which quality and quantity is known.

ii) It is kept for future use with the available technology.

iii) Example: Water in the dam is kept as reserve for dry spells.


I) Stock is a resource available in the atmosphere.

ii) It is not being used presently as we don’t have any technology.

iii) Example – Hydrogen and oxygen both are present in nature but we can not make water (H2O)



i) Net Sown Area is the area sown with crops but is counted only once in a year.

ii) Area sown more than once in the same year is counted only once.

iii) For example: a person is having 5 hectares of fruit orchard from which he get fruits every year. (Fruits from 5 hectares of land/year.)


i) It is the total crops sown  once as well as more than once in a particular year.

ii) When the crop is sown on a piece of land for twice, the area is counted twice in Gross Cropped Area.

iii) For example: a person is having 5 hectares of fruit orchard from which he grows three different fruits in different seasons.

( Total fruits from 5 hectares x 3 seasons = 15 hectare of fruits)


Q 15. What is land degradation? Write any two human activities which have caused land degradation.

Suggest some measures for it’s conservation.

Ans) Land degradation is the temporary or permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land.

In other words, when the quality of land becomes inferior, it is land degradation.

Two human activities which have caused land degradation are:

i) Deforestation

ii) Mining activities.
Measures for the conservation of land are as follows:
Firstly, Afforestation – Planting of trees.
Secondly, Proper management of Grazing land.
Thirdly, Control over mining activities
Fourthly, Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and
Finally, Stabilization of sand dunes.

(answer each part of the question separately and in sequence.)

Q 16. Write the main factors responsible for soil formation.

Ans) Soil is a very important resource as it is a living system.

It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few centimeters in depth.

Factors responsible for soil formation are:

i) Parent rock or bed rock:

Parent rock break and decompose under the process of weathering and erosion.

ii) Climate:

It determines the rate of weathering.

iii) Relief and time:

Hilly or plain regions, vegetation, other forms of life and time are other important factors in the formation of soils.

iv) Various forces of nature: 

Forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers also

contribute to the formation of soil.

v) Chemical and organic changes:

Chemical and organic changes also play a vital role in its formation.

(Answer in five valid points with short explanation.)

Q 17. Write two factors which are responsible for the formation of Black soils. Write any five characteristics of it.

Ans) Two factors which are responsible for the formation of Black soils are:

i) Firstly – the Climatic condition.

ii) Secondly – The parent rock material.

Five characteristics of Black soil are:

i) Firstly, it is made of extremely fine, i.e. clayey material.

ii) Secondly, It has the capacity to hold moisture which in turn makes it ideal for growing cotton.

iii) Rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.

iv) It develops deep cracks during dry hot weather but, helps in the proper aeration of soil.

v) Finally, It is sticky when it is wet.

Farmers have difficulty in working unless tilled immediately after the first shower.

(In the question paper Regur word can also come instead of Black)

Q 18. Write any four features/characteristics of Late-rite soils. 

Ans) To begin with, the four features of Late-rite soils are:

i) Firstly, they are made by a process known as leaching.

ii) Secondly, they develop in areas of heavy rainfall and high temperature.

iii) It has less ‘humus’ content because Micro-organisms like bacteria die due to high temperature.

iv) Lastly, although the soil is infertile but becomes suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.

The word late-rite has come from the Latin word ‘late/ which means brick.

(draw a rough sketch of the map of India and mark the Late-rite soil region)

Q 19. Explain three types of soil erosion mostly observed in India. Mention human activities that are responsible for soil erosion.

Write four methods of soil conservation.

Ans) Three types of soil erosion mostly observed in India are:

i) Gully erosion

The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels, called gullies.

They make the land unfit for cultivation.

Moreover, it converts the land into ‘Bad lands’.

ii) Sheet erosion

When water flows over large areas it washes away the top layer of the soil.

It is known as sheet erosion.

iii) Wind erosion

Wind blows off loose and dry soil from flat and sloping land causing erosion mainly in arid regions.

Four methods of soil conservation are:
i) Contour ploughing:
By ploughing along the contour (circular) lines, water will not run down the slopes.

ii) Terrace cultivation:

Often, People cut hills in such a way that it look like stairs.

Crops grown on the terraces slow down the erosion process.

iii) Strip cropping:

Farmers grow two crops in a straight line called strips.

Sometimes, they use strips of grass between the crops to break the force of the wind.

iv) Planting of shelter belts:

The planting of trees in rows to create shelter also breaks the force of the wind and restricts soil erosion.

Class X Resources & Development


Although, this chapter 1 of Class X Resources and Development is a very important chapter from board point of view, therefore, every student of class X must read the chapter Resources & Development line by line. However, this time CBSE Board is going to conduct Term 1 in the month of November- December. There will be MCQ’s, case studies, Assertion and Reason based questions on the understanding of the chapter. Moreover, Questions will be easy but tricky. However, to know about the type of questions and for practice you must solve previous year question papers. Wish you all the best for your exams.
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