AGRICULTURE – II

Written By Avinash Sharan

17th July 2020

AGRICULTURE: ATTEMPTING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN BOARD EXAMS:

This article (blog) mainly deals with the way questions and answers need to be attempted. understanding based Questions are usually asked in the board exams. https://shapingminds.in/ntse-ii-class-x-geography All chapters seem to be easy but the questions are asked from inside the chapter. Children need a lot of writing practice before they appear in the board examination. It is always difficult to understand the questions asked in the board whereas the answers might be easy. The type of questions asked from Agriculture chapter and the way to attempt is given below for your reference. Practicing these questions will give you the idea about the type of questions asked in board.

1 MARK QUESTIONS FROM AGRICULTURE:

Q 1. Farming practices vary in different regions? Give any two reasons.

Ans) Farming practices vary in different regions. Two major reasons are:

i) Physical environment, which includes relief, soil, climate and rainfall.

ii) Technological know-how and Socio-cultural practices.

Q 2. What factors does “Primitive Subsistence” farming depend on?

Ans) Factors on which “Primitive Subsistence” farming depend are:

i) Monsoon and natural fertility of the soil.

ii) Suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

Q 3. Name some primitive tools used in “slash and burn” agriculture.

Ans) Some of the primitive tools used in “slash and burn” agriculture are:

i) Hoe

ii) Dao and

iii) Digging sticks.

Q 4. Give an example of a crop which is commercial in one region and provides subsistence in another.

Ans) Rice is a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana, while in Orissa and West-Bengal it is a subsistence crop.

Q 5. Name one Horticultural and one beverage plantation crop.

Ans) Horticultural crop is Apple and a beverage plantation crop is Tea.

Other important questions with answers from Agriculture:

Q 6. Name any two states which raise three paddy crops in a year.

Ans) Two states which raise three paddy crops in a year are Assam and West-Bengal.

Q 7. Name two important wheat zones in India.

Ans) Two important wheat zones in India are:

i) The Ganga-Satluj plains in the North-West and

ii) Black soil region of the Deccan.

Q 8. Which factor is making the “Intensive subsistence farming” uneconomical these days?

Ans) “Right of inheritance” leads to the division of land among successive generations.

This has rendered land holding size uneconomical these days.

Q 9. What are Coarse grains? Why are they important in India?

Ans)  Millets are called coarse grains e.g. Jowar, Bajra and Ragi.

They are important because they have high nutritional value and make an important part of the diet for poor people.

Q 10. What percentage of the total cropped area of India is under oil seed production? What is India’s position in the world with regard to oil-seed production?

Ans)  12% of the total cropped area is under oil seed production.

India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world.

3 MARK PRACTICE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS:

Q 1. Write three main features of Primitive Subsistence Farming.

i) This type of farming is practiced in few pockets of India on small patches of land using primitive tools.

Farmers clear a patch of forest and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their families.

ii) When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land (forest) for cultivation.

This type of shifting allows nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes.

iii) Land productivity is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modem inputs.

Q 2. Write the main characteristics of Intensive subsistence farming.

i) It is labour intensive farming and practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.

ii) Yield per hectare is high because high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used.

iii) The size of the land-holdings is small due to division of land making it uneconomical.

Q 3. Name one type of agriculture which falls in the category of commercial agriculture. Write the main characteristics of this type of agriculture.

Ans) “Plantation agriculture falls in the category of commercial farming”.

Main features of Plantation agriculture are as follows:

i) A single type of crop is grown on a large area. Plantation is carried out on large estates using lot of capital intensive units.

ii) Lot of migrant labours work on these estates.

iii) The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry. All the produce is used as raw material in the respective industries.

iv) The production is mainly on large scale for the market, i.e., commercial agriculture.

v) A well developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets plays an important role in the development of plantations. (mention any three points)

Q4. Name three cropping seasons of India. Write their sowing and harvesting time and major crops of each season.

Ans) Three cropping seasons of India are Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.

  1. Rabi crops (Winter season):

a) These are sown in winter from October to December.

b) Harvested in summer from April to June.

c) Important crops are wheat, barley, mustard, peas, gram etc.

2.  Kharif crops (Rainy season):

a) These are sown with the onset of monsoon (June-July)

b) harvested in September-October.

c) Important crops are rice, maize, millets, cotton, jute etc.

3.  Zaid season: (short season during summer):

a) It is a short cropping season during summer months mainly between March-April.

b) mainly done near the river side where the soil is moist.

c) crops grown are watermelon, Muskmelon, Cucumber, flowers etc.

Q 5. What are the challenges being faced by Indian farmers? What has this resulted in?

Ans) Challenges faced by Indian farmers are:

i) Reduction in public investment by government in the agricultural sector like irrigation, power, and mechanization.

ii) Subsidy on fertilizers has decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.

iii) Reduction in import duties on agricultural products has proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.

All these factors have resulted in stiff international competition.

Farmers are thus withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in agricultural employment.

Q 6. Give an account of fibre crop which is mainly grown in Deccan Plateau region under the following heads:

(a) Its position in the world production

(b) geographical conditions and

(c) major states of production.

Ans) Cotton is the fibre crop which is mainly grown in the black soil of the Deccan Plateau region.

Position:  India is the 3rd largest producer of cotton in the world.

Geographical conditions. Cotton requires:

  • high temperature.
  • light rainfall or irrigation.
  • 210 frost-free days.
  • bright sunshine for its growth.
  • black cotton soil which is very good for its growth

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: 5 MARK

Q 1. Explain any five features of Indian agriculture. (Qns. can be asked in different ways but the ans. will be the same)

                                                              OR

‘Agriculture is also called the backbone of the Indian Economy.’ Explai

Ans) Five features of Indian agriculture are:

i) Indian agriculture is mainly of intensive subsistence type.

ii) Agriculture is a primary activity and produces most of the food and food grains that we consume.

iii) It produces raw materials for our various industries, e.g., cotton, jute and sugar industry.

iv) Some agricultural products, like tea, coffee and spices, are exported and earn foreign exchange.

v) The share of agriculture in providing employment and livelihood to the population continued to be as high as 63%.

Q 2. Compare ‘Intensive Subsistence farming’ with that of ‘Commercial farming’ practiced in India.

Ans)

  INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING         COMMERCIAL FARMING
(i) production is mainly for self consumption. (i) crops are mainly grown for commercial (selling) purpose.
(ii) It is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land. (ii) It is practiced on large pieces of land on scientific and commercial lines.
(iii) It is labour intensive farming. (iii) In this type of agriculture, machines and modem technologies are used.
(iv) In this, high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production. (iv) There is higher use of modern agricultural inputs. High Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds, fertilizers, irrigation are used to obtain higher yields and production.
(v) Farmers take maximum output from the limited land by raising 2-3 crops in a year from the same land, i.e., multiple cropping is practiced. (v) Only one crop is grown in large scale. It resembles like factory production.

 

Q 3. Explain any five steps taken by the central and state governments to improve Indian agriculture after independence.

Ans Initiatives taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production after Independence:

i) consolidation of land holdings and abolition of zamindari system.

ii) Land reforms were the main focus of the First Five Year Plan by the Government.

iii) The Green Revolution and White Revolution were some of the strategies initiated to improve Indian agriculture.

iv) Minimum Support Price Policy, provisions for crop insaurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs. Also, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are some of the reforms brought by the government.

v) Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Agricultural universities, Veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development and weather forecast etc. were given priority for improving Indian agriculture after Independence.

Q 4. What are coarse grains? Why are they important in India? Name the crops which are included in this category and name three leading states producing each of these crops.

Ans) Millets are also called coarse grains.

They are important because they have high nutritional value.

It makes an important part of the diet for poor people.

Important millets grown in India are as follows:

i) Ragi —Leading producer  is Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu. Himachal Pradesh, etc

ii) Jowar—Maharashtra is the leading producer followed by Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh.

iii) Bajra—It grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soils. Rajasthan is the largest producer followed by Uttar- Pradesh &Maharashtra.

Q 5. “The contribution of agriculture to National economy is on the decline.” Write five facts to support this statement.

Ans) The contribution of agriculture is showing a declining trend because:

i) The share of agriculture in GDP is showing a declining trend since 1951.

ii) it is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the field of agriculture.

iii) stagnation in agriculture is leading to a decline in other spheres of the economy as well.

iv) Farmers are facing big challenges from international competition.

v)  Farmers are dragging away their investment from agriculture which is alarming.

 

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