AGRICULTURE – I NOTES AND REVISED SYLLABUS

Written By Avinash Sharan

12th July 2020

AGRICULTURE – NOTES AND REVISED SYLLABUS FOR CLASS X

CLASS X AGRICULTURE

                 CLASS X AGRICULTURE

Recently C.B.S.E. has announced the revised syllabus https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/cbse-class-10-social-science-syllabus-1493699716-1 for the students of class X. In Geography, chapter no. 2 ,3 and 5 is removed as per the revised syllabus for class X. However, map related questions will be asked from chapter no. 3 and 5. Agriculture, an important chapter in Geography is reduced up to contribution of agriculture in the national economy, employment and output, (page no. 44 of ncert book.) https://shapingminds.in/ntse-ii-class-x-geography/ The topics from agriculture chapter which students need not prepare are: i) Food security ii) Impact of Globalization on Agriculture. These topics from Agriculture chapter are already deleted from many years. For the latest cbse Revised curriculum for class X, students are advised to directly visit the cbse website and confirm.

As the syllabus has been reduced, cbse is definitely going to raise the standard of the question paper next year. In this all important topics from agriculture chapter is covered.

INTRODUCTION:

Agriculture is a primary activity which produces most of the food that we consume besides food grain it also produces raw material for various industries.

Some agriculture product like tea, coffee, spice, etc…

TYPES OF FARMING

Cultivation method has changed significantly depending upon the characteristics of physical environmental, technological know – how and socio – culture practices. Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type in different parts of India.

1. PRIMITIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING:

This type of farming is still practiced in few pockets of India

  1. Farming is done mainly by tribal using primitive tools like hoe dao and digging sticks.
  2. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil.
  3. It is also known as ‘salsh and burn’ agriculture.
  4. The soil fertility decreases.
  5. The farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
  6. It is also called shifting agriculture. Jhumming in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
  7. It is known as “Milpa” in Mexico and “Roca” in Brazil.

INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE FARMING

  1. This type of farming is practiced is areas of high population pressure on land .
  2. It is labour intensive farming.
  3. The bio-chemical  inputs (high doses of chemicals and fertilizers) and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
  4. There is enormous pressure on agriculture land.
  5. In India, it is mainly done in Punjab, Haryana, U.P, etc.
  6. “Right to inheritance” leading to the division of land has made the land holding size small and uneconomical.

COMMERCIAL FARMING

  1. This type of farming is mainly done to sell the crops and earn money.
  2. The degree of commercialization of agriculture various from one region to another.
  3. A single crop s grown on a large area e.g. Rubber, Cotton, Tea, Coffee etc.
  4. It requires migrant and skilled labours.
  5. developed transport and communication plays an important role in the development of plantation.
  6. The products are used as raw material in respective industries.

CROPPING PATTERN (SEASONS):

India has three cropping seasons:

i) Kharif – starts with rainy season.

ii) Rabi – sown in winter season.

iii) Zaid – short season during summer.

MAJOR CROPS GROWN IN INDIA:

Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, Cotton and jute, etc.

NON FOOD-CROPS:

Rubber:

  1. It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions.
  2. Also grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions.
  3. It requires moist and humid climate.
  4. Requires rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature above 25℃
  5. Mainly grown in Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands.

Fibre Crops:

  1. Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
  2. Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.

Cotton:

  1. India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant.
  2. One of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry.
  3. Grows well in black soil of the Deccan plateau.
  4. Requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost free days and bright sunshine.
  5. In 2008 India was the second largest producer of cotton after china.

Jute:

  1. It is also known as the Golden Fibre.
  2. Grows well in well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains.
  3. Major jute producing area went to Bangladesh.
  4. Due to it’s high cost it is losing market to synthetic fibres.
  5. Used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes carpets etc.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS:

Technological reforms refers to the changes made in agriculture due to technology. Institutional reforms refers to the changes brought by the Government. Some of the Technological reforms are:

i) use of HYV seeds.

ii) Using machines like tractors, harvesters, combine etc.

iii) Making use of fertilizers instead of manures.

iv) Use of insecticides and pesticides.

v) Using pump sets for irrigation etc.

INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS:

I) Consolidation of land holdings.

ii) Abolition of Zamindari system.

iv) Crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease.

v) Public distribution system and announcing minimum support price.

vi) Establishment of Grameen Banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.

vii) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and T.V

CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO THE NATIONAL ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND OUTPUT: 

  1. The population continues to be as high as 63 per cent in 2001.
  2. The government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture in India.
  3. India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture through Establishment of Indian Council of Agriculture and research
  4. Share a substantial part in the gross domestic product(GDP)
  5. Provides employment in agriculture and industries.
  6. Livelihood to the population.
  7. Veterinary services and animal breeding centers.
  8. Horticulture development.
  9. Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast.

DELETED TOPICS FROM AGRICULTURE:

i) Food security

ii) Impact of Globalization on Agriculture.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE QUESTIONS (MCQ) FOR BOARD AND NTSE WITH ASSERTION AND REASON:

1. Which of the following crops are grown with the onset of monsoons and are harvested in the months of September-October? [CBSE 2011]
(a) Kharif
(b) Rabi
(c) Zaid
(d) None of the above


2. ‘Slash and bum’ agriculture is a type of ___________ [CBSE 2011]
(a) Shifting agriculture
(b) Intensive agriculture
(c) Commercial agriculture
(d) None of these


3. Grapes are mainly produced in the state of ____________ .
(a)  Andhra Pradesh
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Mizoram
(d) Meghalaya


4. Bhoodan & Gramdan movement was initiated by
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Vinoba Bhave
(d) Bal Gangadhar Tilak


5. Grouping of small land holdings into a bigger one is called
(a) ceiling on land holdings.
(b) consolidation of land holdings
(c) cooperative farming.
(d) green revolution

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. Which statement regarding to commercial farming is incorrect?
(a) Use of heavy doses of modem inputs.
(b) Crops are grown for sale.
(c) Family members are involved in growing crops.
(d) Practised on large land holdings.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. A type of millet rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage is
(a) Bajra
(b) Rajma
(c) Jowar
(d) Ragi

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. Cultivation of fruits and vegetables
(a) Agriculture
(b) Horticulture
(c) Sericulture
(d) Pisciculture

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9. Give reason as to why Rice and Wheat grows in Punjab and Haryana.
(a) availability of cheap labour.
(b) development of canals irrigation and tube wells.
(c) fertile soil.
(d) development of transport network.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

NCERT QUESTIONS:

10. Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area? (NCERT)
(a) Shifting agriculture
(b) Plantation agriculture
(c) Horticulture
(d) Intensive agriculture

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

11. Which one of the following is a Leguminous crop? (Textbook)
(a) Pulses
(b) Jawar
(c) Millets
(d) Sesamum

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Which one of the following is announced by the Government in support of a crop? (NCERT)
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Modern support price

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13.  Which of the following is not correct about plantation farming?
(a) In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area.
(b) The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry.
(c) Plantations cover large tracts of land called estates.
(d) Farmers clear a patch of land by felling trees and burning them, to produce cereals and other food crops

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

HOTS QUESTIONS :

14. Which State is the largest producer of Bajra?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Gujarat
(d) Haryana


15. Which is the right condition for the growth of maize?
(a) Temperature between 21 °C to 27°C and old alluvial soil
(b) Temperature below 17°C and shallow black soil
(c) Temperature of 25°C and 200 cm of rainfall
(d) None of the _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

16. Which crop requires 210 frost free days for its growth?

(a) Wheat

(b) Maize

(c) Jute

(d) Cotton

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

17. Aus, Aman and Boro are types of which crop? (HOTS)

(a) Maize

(b) Mangoes

(c) Paddy

(d) Pulses

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

18. Three types of tea are___________

(a) Aus, Aman and Boro

(b) Milpa, Roca and Dipa

(c) Assam, Darjeeling and Nilgiri

(d) Green, Black and Oolong

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ASSERTION AND REASON:

19. Assertion: Intensive subsistence farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land.
Reason: “Right to inheritance” leading to division of land has made the farming more profitable.
Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

20. Assertion: Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are the important millets of India.

Reason: These crops are leguminous crops.

Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

21. Assertion: Hemp and natural silk are also known as golden fibre.

Reason: It requires 210 frost free days and bright sunshine.

Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

22. Assertion: Indian coffee is known in the world for its good quality.

Reason: The Arabica variety brought from Yemen is produced in the country.

Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

A & R Continued…..

23. Assertion: Main oil seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, sesamum, linseed soyabean etc.

Reason: some are also useful in making of soap, cosmetics and ointments.

Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

24. Assertion: Gramdan and Bhudan was initiated by Vinoba Bhave.

Reason: It was due to the fear of Land ceiling act.

Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

25. Assertion: Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy.

Reason: It contributes 26% of the total GDP.

Options:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true but B is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

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