PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA – CLASS IX

Written By Avinash Sharan

21st May 2020

CHAPTER 2 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA - NOTES AND EXPLANATION

CLASS IX GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 2 PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA – CLASS IX – NOTES WITH EXPLANATION OF CONCEPTS

Physical features of India is an important chapter for class IX. What do you mean by Physical divisions of India? Physical features means natural divisions which are created by the nature. Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, Deserts and Islands. all come under physical divisions. India has everything.

India has the world’s highest mountains i.e. Himalayas. It has the world’s oldest and strongest plateau i.e. Peninsular plateau.Then we have the world’s most fertile plains i.e. The Ganga plains. India also has a desert in Rajasthan known as Thar desert and it has two beautiful island groups namely Andaman and Nicobar in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in Arabian sea.

All these physical divisions are important and play an important role. We will take up all the physical divisions one by one.

IMPORTANT: One project on Disaster Management is mandatory for class 9 students. For help, https://shapingminds.in/disaster-management-project/ read the post on Disaster Management. For NTSE preparations, https://shapingminds.in/class-ix-geograp…d-ntse-questions/ click the link.

 

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA: TOPICS COVERED

  1. The Northern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plains
  3.  Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Coastal Plains
  5. Thar Desert
  6. Island Groups of India.

1. THE NORTHERN MOUNTAINS – HIMALAYAS: (FIRST PHYSICAL DIVISION OF INDIA)

Himalayas are the world’s tallest but https://shapingminds.in/हिमालय-भारत-का-सबसे-कमज़ोर/ at the same time the weakest mountains.

It was formed under the sea millions of years back.

They are called young fold mountains as it’s height is still increasing.

It has three parallel ranges namely Himadri, Himachal and Shiwalik.

FORMATION OF HIMALAYAS: AN INTERESTING STORY

i) Millions of years ago, there were only two huge continents- Angaraland and Gondwanaland.

ii) North America, Europe, Russia and China were the part of Angaraland.

iii) South America, Africa, India and Australia were the part of Gondwanaland.

iv) Between Angaraland and Gondwanaland was a sea named Tethys.

v) Rivers from Angaraland and Gondwanaland used to deposit its sediments in the sea.

vi) Accumulation of these sediments made the sea shallow (less deep)

vi) Gondwanaland split into pieces and Indian landmass moved towards Angaraland due to tectonic force.

vii) As we know that earth’s crust if floating over Asthenosphere, due to internal force of earth.

viii) When India was moving towards Angaraland, sediments in the sea started folding (rising)

ix) First fold was in the extreme North of the sea, second fold in the middle and the with the third fold the sea disappeared.

x) India still continued to float towards North and these folds were increasing in height.

xi) These rising folds were known as Himalayas with ranges like Himadri, Himachal and Shiwaliks.

NOW YOU WILL EASILY UNDERSTAND WHY EARTHQUAKES COME IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION.

THREE RANGES OF HIMALAYAS:

I) HIMADRI OR THE GREATER HIMALAYAS OR INNER HIMALAYAS:

a) it is the Northern most and highest range of Himalayas.

b) average height of this range is 6000 m. (6 km)

c) it has all the important peaks of Himalayas e,g, Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Nandadevi etc.

d) it consists of Granite.

e) most of the peaks are snow covered and is the home of Glaciers.

ii) HIMACHAL OR MIDDLE HIMALAYAS:

a) it is a range found between Himadri and Shiwaliks therefore called Middle Himalayas.

b) most of the hill stations are located here like Masooree, Dalhousie, Shimla etc.

c) average height is from 3500 m to 4500 m.

d) they are formed by highly composed rocks.

e) this range is also famous for fruit orchards like Apples, Pears, Apricots and Cherry.

iii) SHIWALIKS OR OUTER HIMALAYAS:

a) it is the outer most range of Himalayas.

b) average height is 900 to 1100 m

c) still in the stage of formation therefore very weak.

d) it is prone to earthquakes and landslides.

e) this range is mostly covered with dense forests and has many National Parks.

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA – CLASS IX – NOTES WITH EXPLANATION OF CONCEPTS

2. THE NORTHERN PLAINS: (SECOND PHYSICAL DIVISION OF INDIA)

plain means flat land.

land from Punjab to Assam in India is flat so it is called the Northern Plains.

HOW ARE THESE PLAINS FORMED:

I) After the formation of Himalayas, many rivers started flowing from it.

ii) when a river flows, it also brings sediments.

iii) Rivers deposit these sediments.

iv) these deposited sediments are mostly very fine and fertile.

v) fine and fertile deposit on the bank of river is soil.

vi) soil deposits make the land flat which forms the Northern fertile plains.

vii) Satluj river along with it’s tributaries forms the plains of Punjab and Haryana.

viii) Ganga along with it’s tributaries forms the plains from Delhi to kolkata.

ix) Brahmaputra with it’s tributaries forms the plains of Assam.

x) Punjab to Assam is the belt known as the Northern fertile plains.

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF NORTHERN PLAINS:

a) plain has rich fertile soil for growing crops.

b) they are also the source of water from perennial rivers.

c) it is easy to construct roads, railway tracks and airports on the plains.

d) Perennial rivers also provide slow but facility for water transport.

e) availability of water, fertile soil and fast means of transport, makes this region densely populated.

 PLAIN REGIONS HAVE DENSE POPULATION. WHY ? CAN YOU ANSWER NOW ?

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA – CLASS IX – NOTES WITH EXPLANATION OF CONCEPTS

THE PENINSULAR PLATEAU: (THIRD PHYSICAL FEATURE OF INDIA)

A plateau is a high land which is flat from the top.

Peninsular plateau of India lies to the South of Ganga plains.

It is triangular in shape and made up of very hard rocks.

Due to volcanic eruptions, this plateau was formed.

It consists of igneous and Metamorphic rocks.

TWO DIVISIONS OF PENINSULAR PLATEAU: AN IMPORTANT PHYSICAL FEATURE OF INDIA

  1. The Central Highlands
  2. The Deccan Plateau.

THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS:

a) It extends https://abhipedia.abhimanu.com/Article/IAS/NTEyNjkEEQQVV/Classification-of-Indian-Plateau-Geography-IAS from

Aravali hills from the West to Chota Nagpur Plateau in the East.

b) To it’s South lies the Vindhya range up to Narmada river.

c) Average height of Central highland is 700 to 1000 m.

d) Important rivers are Narmada, Tapi, Son, Chambal and Betwa.

e) It is rich in minerals like Mica, Bauxite, Iron, Coal, Copper and Limestone.

f) Chota Nagpur Plateau is called the “Store house of minerals”.

THE DECCAN PLATEAU:

a) lies to the South of Narmada river from Satpura hills to Kerala.

b) It’s height increases as we move to the south.

c) average height is 1500 m.

d) important rivers are Godavari, Krishna, Cavery, Mahanadi and Tungbhadra.

e) slope is from West to East.

f) important hills are Nilgiri, Annamalai and Cardamom hills

TWO DIVISIONS OF DECCAN PLATEAU:

Deccan Plateau has two divisions namely Western and Eastern ghats.

Western ghat is a narrow strip of highland parallel to western coastal plains.

Deccan plateau rivers originate from western ghats.

It is continuous and it’s height increases as we move to south.

Highest peak is “Anaimudi” (2695 m) on Annamalai hills.

Eastern ghats are broad but discontinuous.

Extends up to eastern coastal plains.

these ghats are bisected by east flowing rivers.

Highest peak of Eastern ghat is Mahendragiri.(1500 m)

THE COASTAL PLAINS OF INDIA: FOURTH PHYSICAL FEATURE OF INDIA:

Plain land near the sea coast is known as coastal plains.

India has sea coast to it’s East, West and South.

East and West coast only meet at South.

Plains near the Eastern coast is called Eastern coastal plains.

Plains near the Western coast is called Western coastal plains.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN COASTAL PLAINS:

Eastern coastal plain lies parallel to Bay of Bengal while Western coastal plain lies parallel to Arabian sea.

Plains of East extend from West Bengal to Kanyakumari while Western plains extend from Gujarat to Kanyakumari.

Eastern plains are broader while the Western plains are narrow.

Plains towards the East is more fertile than the Western plains.

Eastern plains are broad because east flowing rivers form delta while west flowing rivers form estuaries.

Coastal plains of the east has two divisions i) Northern Circars ii) Coromandal coast.

Coastal Plains of the west has three divisions I) Konkan ii) Kannad and iii) Malabar

Important cities on eastern plains are Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai etc.

Important cities on western plains are Surat, Mumbai, Panaji, cochin etc.

East flowing rivers like Mahanadi, Godawari, Cauvery and Krishna forms eastern plains.

West flowing rivers like Narmada, Tapi forms the western plains.

THE GREAT INDIAN DESERT: ( FIFTH PHYSICAL DIVISION OF INDIA)

Great Indian Desert is called Thar desert.

It mainly lies in the western part of Rajasthan.

Also covers some part of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab.

Strong winds lifted sand from Alluvial soil and deposited here.

Due to less water and high temperature, soil turned dry.

Sandy soil is infertile therefore vegetation is less.

Important trees are Cactus, Babool, Kikar, Date Palm, Aloe vera etc.

Watery spot in desert is known as Oasis.

Days are extremely hot but the nights are cold.

Important animals found here are Camels, Sheep, Goat, snakes and varieties of insects.

It also acts as a barrier between India and Pakistan.

Luni is the only seasonal river.

ISLAND GROUPS OF INDIA: (SIXTH PHYSICAL DIVISION OF INDIA)

There are two Island groups in India.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie in Bay of Bengal and is 1360 km from the mainland of India  (Chennai)

Lakshadewwp Islands  https://shapingminds.in/अंडमान-और-निकोबार-द्वीप-स/ lies in Arabian sea and is only 250 km from Kerala (Cochin)

Capital of Andaman and Nicobar is Port Blair.

Capital of Lakshdweep is Kawaratti.

There are more than 572 islands in Andaman and Nicobar with active volcanoes on Barren islands.

Lakshdweep has 36 islands and is known for it’s corals.

CONCLUSION: PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF INDIA

  1. Mountains are important because they are the source of water, Herbal medicines, Rain and Natural beauty (Tourism)
  2. Plains are the granary (FOOD BASKET) of India which supports housing and fast transportation.
  3. Plateaus are the store house of minerals which promotes mining and industries.
  4. Coastal areas help connecting India with other countries of the world and is ultimate source of sea food.
  5. Deserts are the ultimate source of sand, mineral oil and supports a variety of organisms.
  6. Island groups serve as Naval and Military base. Also supports aesthetic, spiritual, educational values and promotes tourism.

 

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS ASKED FROM THIS CHAPTER:

Q1. Define Convergence and Divergence. (1 mark )

Q2. Which continents of today were the part of Gondwanaland? (1 MARK )

Q3. Define Khadar and Bhangar. ( 1 MARK )

Q4. Name the range of Himalayas consisting of lofty peaks ? ( 1 mark )

Q5. Name the mountain range which bounds central highlands from the North West. ( 1 MARK )

Q6. Name the highest peak of Deccan plateau? ( 1 MARK )

Q7. From which hill does the Narmada river rise? (1 MARK )

Q8. Name two important passes of the Himalayas ? ( 1 MARK )

Q9. Why are Himalayas called the Young Fold mountains ? ( 1 MARK )

Q10. What are the two divisions of Deccan plateau ? (1 MARK )

Q11. Name the island group of India having coral origin. (1 MARK )

Q12. Which river separates Central highlands from Deccan plateau ? (1 MARK )

Q13. Explain the “Theory of Plate Tectonics”. (3 MARKS )

Q14. Name the southernmost range of Himalayas ? Mention any four features of it? (3 MARKS )

Q15. Distinguish between Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats ? (3 MARKS )

Q16. Mention any three important features of Northern plains. (3 MARKS )

Q17. What are Purvanchal Hills. Mention any two features? (3 MARKS )

Q18. Explain the formation of Himalayas ? ( 5 MARKS )

Q19. Give an account of the Deccan Plateau ? ( 5 MARKS )

Q20. “The land of India displays great physical variations”.Justify with five examples. (HOTS) (5 MARKS )

Q21. Which is the oldest landmass of India? Name it’s two broad divisions and write any three features of each. ( 5 MARKS )

IMPORTANT: READ NCERT TEXT BOOK LINE BY LINE.

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