Types Of Agriculture In India – The Ultimate Guide For Class X Students
Types of Agriculture in India – Before we start this topic, let’s first understand why there are various types of agriculture in India. You know that India is a country which has different types of physical features, Climate, Soils, Rainfall and seasons. All these factors at different locations are enough to promote various types of agriculture within India. Of course there are some socio-economic factors like land size, education, capital, market etc. also which play an important role in deciding types of agriculture in India.
Agriculture is one of the major sectors of Indian economy. Moreover, People are practicing agricultural activities from thousands of years. Even today, most of the people are directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture. Therefore, It is not merely a source of livelihood but a way of life. It contributes maximum to the National income. Not only that, it also employs many people. That is why it is also the backbone of Indian economy. Finally, Agriculture plays a vital role not only in Indian economy but also influences our Social, Political and Cultural life.
Types Of Agriculture In India
Table Of Contents:
- Subsistence Farming i From hand to mouth
- Shifting Agriculture : Tribal way of farming
- Plantation Agriculture ; Single crop farming
- Intensive Farming : Mechanized agriculture with modern inputs.
- Dry Agriculture : One crop in a year
- Mixed Farming : Farming and cattle rearing
- Crop Rotation : Maintaining soil fertility
- Terrace Farming : Hilltop Farming
- Home Farming : Hobby with income
Subsistence Farming : From hand to mouth
First, let’s understand what does Subsistence mean?
Subsistence means supporting oneself at minimum level.
Now, with the word itself it is clear that subsistence farming is the crops grown for self.
In this type of farming, nothing extra is left.
The farmers mainly grow crops to fulfill their own family needs.
Moreover, the size of the farm is small as well as scattered.
In India, most of the farmers practice subsistence farming.
Farmers are poor that is why old seeds, outdated tools and traditional method of farming is used.
Obviously the production will be low and the condition of farmers will be from hand to mouth.
Now, can you guess in which Indian states this type of farming is done?
2. Shifting Agriculture : Tribal way of farming
In this type of agriculture, farmers shift from one place to another for farming.
But, the question is why do they shift?
Now, let’s understand what happens in this type of farming?
Tribal people who live in hilly areas with dense forests practice this type of farming.
Therefore, first they cut or burn a patch of forest.
Do farming there with very outdated tools for 2-3- years.
When the soil starts losing it’s fertility, they shift to another place.
Again burn a patch of forest and continue doing the same.
That is why in this type of farming, the production is very low.
In North-East India, this type of farming is called Jhumming.
Now, can you guess what is it called in Mexico, Brazil etc.
3. Plantation Agriculture : Single crop farming
Plantation agriculture was introduced by the Britishers.
In this type of farming a single crop is grown on large scale.
Therefore, it resembles factory production.
You need skilled labors and huge capital for this type of farming.
As the intention of the farmer is to sell the crop in the market.
Therefore, good connectivity and swift transport is also required.
Tea, coffee, Banana, Sugarcane, cotton, rubber, spices are some of the crops grown.
Can you Guess which Indian state is the largest producer of Rubber in India?
4. Intensive Farming : Mechanized agriculture with modern inputs.
Intensive farming is done at places which have high density of population and the size of land is small.
Therefore, to fulfill the demand of crops farmers use modern machines like tractors, Harvesters, combine etc.
Also, to get high production they use, manures, chemicals, fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
Due to the use of modern machines, the yield per hectare is high.
Of course, this type of farming is good for food security, but not for the soil.
However, In long run, intensive farming will make the soil completely infertile.
Do you agree with me.
Now, can you guess a crop which is subsistence in Orissa and W.B. but intensive in Punjab?
5. Dry Agriculture : One crop in a year
As the name suggests, dryland farming is done in the drier parts of India.
Which part of India is dry?
Yes, you guessed correctly.
It is Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat, and Eastern Ghats.
Due to less availability of water with no irrigation facility and infertile soil only one crop in a year is possible to grow.
Quiz Time: Have a Break From Types Of Agriculture In India:
Can you rearrange these jumbled letters to form a meaningful word in just 10 minutes.
HINT: ALL WORDS ARE RELATED TO AGRICULTURE.
i) ARIKFH =
II) SITPEDCISE =
III) RACTTOR =
IV) BRIEF PROCS=
V) LIMTELS =
VI) REMMCCALIO RAMFING =
VII) SEHVNTGAIR =
VIII) ZAIME = MAIZE
IX) NPIOTTLNAA =
X) HUMMINGJ =
i) KHARIF ii) PESTICIDES iii) TRACTOR iv) FIBRE CROPS v) MILLETS vi) COMMERCIAL FARMING vii) HARVESTING viii) MAIZE ix) PLANTATION x) JHUMMING
Types Of Agriculture In India:
6. Mixed Farming : Farming and cattle rearing
In this type of farming, farmers grow crops as well as raise livestock (animals).
Animals are raised to supplement their income.
Farm size is small.
Production is low.
A small piece of land is kept for rearing of animals.
After harvesting the crop, remains are used as fodder for the animals.
7. Crop Rotation : Maintaining soil fertility
In case of crop rotation, two or three crops are grow in a year.
With the change in season, the crop also changes.
Here, generally cereals are followed by leguminous crops (pulses)
This is done to maintain soil fertility.
Also, reduces the chances of soil erosion.
Moreover, it reduces pests build up and prevents crops from diseases.
In Assam and West Bengal, three crops of Rice are grown in a year.
Have you heard about Aus, Aman and Boro?
8. Terrace Farming : Hilltop Farming
People who live in the hilly regions, practice terrace farming.
They cut the slopes into terraces (stairs)
Then, over every step, crops are grown.
Tea in Assam and Darjeeling is the best example of terrace farming.
These hill cut slopes reduces the force of water.
Hence, helps in soil conservation.
9. Home Farming : Hobby with income
Firstly, Home farming is practiced as a hobby.
Secondly, maintaining a small kitchen garden.
Thirdly, Growing Decorative plants, Mushroom, fruits, vegetables in the courtyard.
Moreover, It requires small space.
Therefore can be done on the roof as well.
Many people do it as a hobby but can be done for commercial purpose also.
Moreover, It also supplements the income of the family.
Types Of Agriculture In India:
In India, many types of farming is practiced. Moreover, farming is the major source of income of the people. India also ranks number 1 in the production of many crops. So, these are all the types of farming with detailed explanation and in simple words. Hope, you will find “types of agriculture in India” post interesting. For complete NOTES on Agriculture, click on the link.